Epidemiology

Community Diagnosis

Definition According to WHO definition it is “a quantitative and qualitative description of the health citizens and the factors which influence their health. It identifies problems, proposes areas for improvement and stimulates action.” The stages involved in the process of community diagnosis: The process of community diagnosis involves four stages- Initiation Data collection and analysis …

Ways of structuring a literature review

Chronological organization The discussion of the research/articles is ordered according to an historical or developmental context The classic studies organization A discussion or outline of the major writings regarded as significant in your area of study. Topical or thematic organization The research is divided into sections representing the categories or conceptual subjects for your topic. …

Types of epidemiological Studies

Broadly epidemiological studies may be classified into two broad types, depending upon the type of exposure:- Observational (non-experimental) studies Experimental studies Observational studies Observational studies allow nature to take its own course, the investigator observe, measure but does not intervene where the researcher has no control over the exposure. The observational studies, which comprise the …

Exposure in epidemiology

The condition of being subjected to something, as to infectious agents, extremes of weather, or radiation, which may have a harmful effect. In case of communicable disease: Negative exposure – Consumption of polluted water causes disease Positive exposure – Consumption of safe water does not causes disease In non-communicable disease: Smoking is a risk factor …

Types, uses and features of descriptive studies

Types of descriptive studies Case series studies Community diagnosis or need assessment Descriptive cross-sectional studies Ecological descriptive studies Epidemiological description of disease occurrence   Use of descriptive Study To measure incidence To measure Prevalence To generate hypothesis The essential Features of descriptive studies are: To describe present or past characteristics of persons with a particular …

Analytical studies commonly used in epidemiology

Analytical studies are further sub-types depending upon the study groups and time. Commonly used analytical studies are as follows: Cross-sectional study – Comparison group are not determined earlier because exposure and outcome both measure at the same time.  Case control study – Comparison groups are selected according to outcome. Study subjects are then interviewed or …